Grub引导Win7+XP+Ubuntu多系统的问题解决

  今天为了这破事儿弄了一下午,最终还是靠在Ubuntu中文论坛发帖解决了。

  我用的台式机有两块硬盘,Win7+XP+Ubuntu。以前只有一块硬盘的时候,先安装的XP,然后安装Ubuntu(现已更新到11.04)。后来觉得硬盘不够用,就新增加了一块硬盘,在新的硬盘上安装了Win7,系统引导变成Win7的启动引导。后来用光盘修复为Grub引导,默认进入Win7的启动选项,然后Win7的启动选项中设置XP系统为默认启动,然后一直以来正常的启动就是默认进入XP。

  结果昨天因为某些原因卸下有Win7的那块硬盘,然后进入Ubuntu弄点东西,再重新装回有Win7的那块硬盘。至此Grub就不能设置默认引导到Win7的启动选项了,就是默认进入Ubuntu,但是在Grub倒计时那时选择Win7的话也能正常进入选择Win7或者XP来正常进入Windows系统。

  在“启动管理器”里面设置了默认进入Win7启动,重启之后还是自动进入Ubuntu。

后来执行了“fdisk -l”之后结果如下:

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candura@canbuntu:~$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 300.1 GB, 300069052416 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 36481 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xbcebcd9f
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 * 1 5100 40965718+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda2 5101 36481 252067882+ f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
/dev/sda5 5101 10200 40965718+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda6 10201 22949 102406311 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda7 22950 36481 108695758+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
Disk /dev/sdb: 250.1 GB, 250059350016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 30401 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x624aa2e0
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sdb1 * 1 3825 30724281 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sdb2 3826 30402 213474057 f W95 Ext'd (LBA)
/dev/sdb5 3826 8925 40965718+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sdb6 8926 17849 71681998+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sdb7 17850 26773 71681998+ 7 HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sdb8 26774 30246 27894784 83 Linux
/dev/sdb9 30246 30402 1248256 82 Linux swap / Solaris

其中sdb是我安装了XP+Ubuntu的那块硬盘,sda是安装了Win7的那块硬盘。

后来在网上找,说是可以用Grub Customizer来修改尝试,于是就用Grub Customizer来配置。

配置完保存后“/boot/gurb/grub.cfg”文件内容如下:

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#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
# It is automatically generated by grub-mkconfig using templates
# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub
#
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then
set have_grubenv=true
load_env
fi
set default="6"
if [ "${prev_saved_entry}" ]; then
set saved_entry="${prev_saved_entry}"
save_env saved_entry
set prev_saved_entry=
save_env prev_saved_entry
set boot_once=true
fi
function savedefault {
if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then
saved_entry="${chosen}"
save_env saved_entry
fi
}
function recordfail {
set recordfail=1
if [ -n "${have_grubenv}" ]; then if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then save_env recordfail; fi; fi
}
function load_video {
insmod vbe
insmod vga
insmod video_bochs
insmod video_cirrus
}
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
if loadfont /usr/share/grub/unicode.pf2 ; then
set gfxmode=auto
load_video
insmod gfxterm
fi
terminal_output gfxterm
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
set locale_dir=($root)/boot/grub/locale
set lang=zh_CN
insmod gettext
if [ "${recordfail}" = 1 ]; then
set timeout=-1
else
set timeout=1
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###
set menu_color_normal=white/black
set menu_color_highlight=black/light-gray
if background_color 44,0,30; then
clear
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
if [ ${recordfail} != 1 ]; then
if [ -e ${prefix}/gfxblacklist.txt ]; then
if hwmatch ${prefix}/gfxblacklist.txt 3; then
if [ ${match} = 0 ]; then
set linux_gfx_mode=keep
else
set linux_gfx_mode=text
fi
else
set linux_gfx_mode=text
fi
else
set linux_gfx_mode=keep
fi
else
set linux_gfx_mode=text
fi
export linux_gfx_mode
if [ "$linux_gfx_mode" != "text" ]; then load_video; fi
menuentry 'Ubuntu,Linux 2.6.38-10-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
set gfxpayload=$linux_gfx_mode
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.38-10-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro quiet splash vt.handoff=7
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.38-10-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu,Linux 2.6.38-10-generic (恢复模式)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
set gfxpayload=$linux_gfx_mode
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.38-10-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.38-10-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.38-10-generic
}
submenu "Previous Linux versions" {
menuentry 'Ubuntu,Linux 2.6.35-29-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
set gfxpayload=$linux_gfx_mode
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.35-29-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro quiet splash vt.handoff=7
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.35-29-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu,Linux 2.6.35-29-generic (恢复模式)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
set gfxpayload=$linux_gfx_mode
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.35-29-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.35-29-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.35-29-generic
}
}
### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###
### END /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+)" {
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
linux16 /boot/memtest86+.bin
}
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+, serial console 115200)" {
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
linux16 /boot/memtest86+.bin console=ttyS0,115200n8
}
### END /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
menuentry "Windows 7 (loader) (on /dev/sda1)" --class windows --class os {
insmod part_msdos
insmod ntfs
set root='(/dev/sda,msdos1)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 12EC809FEC807F2B
chainloader +1
}
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries. Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment. Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.
### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###
if [ -f $prefix/custom.cfg ]; then
source $prefix/custom.cfg;
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###

  然后重启依旧默认进入的是Ubuntu。

  我看了一下“/boot/grub/”里面的文件,是有“grub.cfg”,没有“menu.lst”的,说明应该已经是用了Grub2来引导的。但是后来用了“sodu update-grub”命令之后,系统提示说找不到“menu.lst”是否创建。

  后来系统自动创建的“menu.lst”文件内容如下:

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menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
# grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
# grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
# and /usr/share/doc/grub-legacy-doc/.
## default num
# Set the default entry to the entry number NUM. Numbering starts from 0, and
# the entry number 0 is the default if the command is not used.
#
# You can specify 'saved' instead of a number. In this case, the default entry
# is the entry saved with the command 'savedefault'.
# WARNING: If you are using dmraid do not use 'savedefault' or your
# array will desync and will not let you boot your system.
default 0
## timeout sec
# Set a timeout, in SEC seconds, before automatically booting the default entry
# (normally the first entry defined).
timeout 3
## hiddenmenu
# Hides the menu by default (press ESC to see the menu)
hiddenmenu
# Pretty colours
#color cyan/blue white/blue
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
# password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret
#
# examples
#
# title Windows 95/98/NT/2000
# root (hd0,0)
# makeactive
# chainloader +1
#
# title Linux
# root (hd0,1)
# kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/hda2 ro
#
#
# Put static boot stanzas before and/or after AUTOMAGIC KERNEL LIST
### BEGIN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST
## lines between the AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST markers will be modified
## by the debian update-grub script except for the default options below
## DO NOT UNCOMMENT THEM, Just edit them to your needs
## ## Start Default Options ##
## default kernel options
## default kernel options for automagic boot options
## If you want special options for specific kernels use kopt_x_y_z
## where x.y.z is kernel version. Minor versions can be omitted.
## e.g. kopt=root=/dev/hda1 ro
## kopt_2_6_8=root=/dev/hdc1 ro
## kopt_2_6_8_2_686=root=/dev/hdc2 ro
# kopt=root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro
## default grub root device
## e.g. groot=(hd0,0)
# groot=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
## should update-grub create alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. alternative=true
## alternative=false
# alternative=true
## should update-grub lock alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. lockalternative=true
## lockalternative=false
# lockalternative=false
## additional options to use with the default boot option, but not with the
## alternatives
## e.g. defoptions=vga=791 resume=/dev/hda5
# defoptions=quiet splash
## should update-grub lock old automagic boot options
## e.g. lockold=false
## lockold=true
# lockold=false
## Xen hypervisor options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenhopt=
## Xen Linux kernel options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenkopt=console=tty0
## altoption boot targets option
## multiple altoptions lines are allowed
## e.g. altoptions=(extra menu suffix) extra boot options
## altoptions=(recovery) single
# altoptions=(recovery mode) single
## controls how many kernels should be put into the menu.lst
## only counts the first occurence of a kernel, not the
## alternative kernel options
## e.g. howmany=all
## howmany=7
# howmany=all
## specify if running in Xen domU or have grub detect automatically
## update-grub will ignore non-xen kernels when running in domU and vice versa
## e.g. indomU=detect
## indomU=true
## indomU=false
# indomU=detect
## should update-grub create memtest86 boot option
## e.g. memtest86=true
## memtest86=false
# memtest86=true
## should update-grub adjust the value of the default booted system
## can be true or false
# updatedefaultentry=false
## should update-grub add savedefault to the default options
## can be true or false
# savedefault=false
## ## End Default Options ##
title Ubuntu 11.04, kernel 2.6.38-10-generic
uuid 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.38-10-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.38-10-generic
title Ubuntu 11.04, kernel 2.6.38-10-generic (recovery mode)
uuid 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.38-10-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.38-10-generic
title Ubuntu 11.04, kernel 2.6.35-29-generic
uuid 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.35-29-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.35-29-generic
title Ubuntu 11.04, kernel 2.6.35-29-generic (recovery mode)
uuid 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.35-29-generic root=UUID=46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.35-29-generic
title Chainload into GRUB 2
root 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
kernel /boot/grub/core.img
title Ubuntu 11.04, memtest86+
uuid 46ed6e0f-6930-446b-9129-58167c489c00
kernel /boot/memtest86+.bin
### END DEBIAN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST

按理说用了Grub2的话,使用“sudo update-grub”应该是更新“grub.cfg”文件才对的阿,真奇怪。

后来论坛里面的“onshoestring”提醒我说,有可能是Grub和Grub2装乱了,试试重装。

然后就执行命令;

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sudo apt-get purge grub
sudo apt-get purge grub-pc
sudo apt-get purge grub-common
sudo rm -rf /boot/grub/*
sudo rm -rf /etc/grub.d/*
sudo rm /etc/default/grub
sudo apt-get install grub-pc grub-common
sudo grub-install /dev/sda
sudo update-grub

  但是在执行“sudo apt-get purge grub”的时候它自动卸载了“启动管理器”,执行完这些之后需要需要再执行“sudo apt-get install startupmanager”来重新安装“启动管理器”,然后其他的一切照旧从“启动管理器”设置。
  结果再一重启,终于,默认经过Grub引导和Win7引导最终进入XP了。

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